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Quality of life in men with Klinefelter syndrome: the impact of genotype, health, socioeconomics, and sexual function
Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is associated with lower socioeconomic status and greater morbidity. However, relatively little is known about the quality of life for men with KS, or how KS and other factors combine to determine it.
A total of 132 men with KS were recruited in clinics, and 313 matched controls were identified by Statistics Denmark. Demographics, socioeconomic status, health problems and behaviors, sexual function, medical follow-up, and mental and physical quality of life (MQoL and PQoL, respectively) were assessed for all participants through surveys.
Men with KS reported significantly lower education attainment levels, income, physical activity, and both PQoL and MQoL, as well as more illness, medication, and sexual dysfunction. KS status was associated directly with lower PQoL, as well as indirectly through reduced income, physical activity, and sexual function, and increased body mass index. KS status and younger age were associated directly with lower MQoL, as well as indirectly through reduced income, physical activity, and partner status (for KS status), or through partner status (for age).
KS status is associated with lower PQoL and MQoL through both direct and indirect paths. These results suggest the need for more comprehensive research and clinical approaches to addressing quality of life for men with KS.